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Academic Research on Fair Use and Codes of Best Practices

Flyer discussing the advantages of an approach to determining fair use that is rooted in professional consensus, rather than (for example) negotiating standards with right holders or consulting legal experts.

pdf fair-use-code-academic-research.pdf

 
 

Fair Use and Education: The Way Forward

The ability to make reasonable "fair use" of copyrighted material is both economically and culturally important to the enterprise of education. In asserting fair use, teachers, librarians, and others cannot rely on a claim of "educational exceptionalism," for which there is no clear basis in U.S. Copyright law. Instead, they should seek to take advantage of current trends in copyright caselaw, including the marked trend toward preferring uses that are "transformative," where the amount of content used is appropriate to the transformative purpose. Over twenty years, we have accumulated considerable information about what constitutes "transformativeness," and members of the education community are well-positioned to provide persuasive narratives explaining how educational uses significantly repurpose and add value to the copyrighted content they incorporate. Published in Law & Literature, Vol. 24 No. 3 (Fall 2012).

pdf jaszi-education-and-fair-use.pdf

 
 

Golan v. Holder: A Farewell to Constitutional Challenges to Copyright Laws

On January 13, 2012, the Supreme Court by a 6-2 vote affirmed the Tenth Circuit decision in Golan v. Holder. The case concerned the constitutionality of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (URAA), which restored copyright in foreign works that had entered into the public domain because the copyright owners had failed to comply with formalities such as notice; or because the U.S. did not have copyright treaties in place with the country at the time the work was created (e.g., the Soviet Union)

pdf golan_summary_06feb12.pdf

 
   

The Law of Fair Use and the Illusion of Fair-Use Guidelines

Several "official" and formal guidelines that attempt to define the scope of fair use for specific applications—notably for education, research, and library services—have emerged in the years since passage of the Copyright Act of 1976. Although some interested parties and some governmental agencies have welcomed these guidelines, none of them ever has had the force of law. This article analyzes the origins of guidelines, the various governmental documents and court rulings that reference the guidelines, and the substantive content of the guidelines themselves to demonstrate that in fact the guidelines bear little relationship, if any, to the law of fair use.

pdf fair-use-code-crews.pdf

 
     

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use: Designing the Public Domain

This Note from the Harvard Law Review organizes research on pro-social motivation around the motivation-fostering effects of empowerment, community, and fairness. By incorporating these norms into the cultural architecture of the public domain, we can promote greater information production at less cost than by relying solely on the intellectual property system's traditional tools of exclusion.

pdf fair-use-code-harvard.pdf

 
 

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use: Fair Use and Research Libraries

Discusses copyright and its problems, why librarians need useable fair use, and the Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries

pdf fair-use-code-slides-lib.pdf

 
   

USPTO Position on Fair Use of Copies of NPL Made in Patent Examination

Memorandum from Bernard J. Knight, Jr. discussing the application of the fair use doctrine to the use of non-patent literature (NPL) in the patent examination process.

pdf fair-use-code-uspto.pdf

 
 

Accessibility, The Chafee Amendment, and Fair Use

Flyer discussing fair use and the reproduction of material for use by disabled students, faculty, staff, and other appropriate users.

pdf Code-brief-chaffee-amendment-2012.pdf

 
 

You Can't Be Too Careful: The Cost of Conservatism to Academic and Research Librarians' Mission

Argues the value of the Code of Fair Use for Academic and Research Libraries to help librarians determine fair use guidelines for their institutions.

pdf fair-use-code-cost-of-conservatism.pdf

 
 

Letter to Congressional Representatives re: SOPA (Dec. 21, 2011)

Letter thanking representatives for their "advocacy of First Amendment rights and the value of an open and secure Internet during last week's markup of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)."

pdf lca_thanks_markuprev21dec11.pdf

 
 

Letter to Ron Wyden, Darrell Issa, and Jason Chaffetz re: Legislation on foreign infringing websites (Dec. 12, 2011)

Letter from the Library Copyright Alliance encouraging the release of a discussion draft bill to address the problem of foreign infringing websites.

pdf lca_letteropenact_12dec11.pdf

 
       

Resource Packet on Orphan Works: Legal and Policy Issues for Research Libraries

There is long-standing interest in identifying orphan works, books that are subject to copyright but whose copyright holders cannot be identified or contacted. Orphan works comprise a significant percentage of ARL collections, and there is deep interest in making these works discoverable and more accessible. Recently, the University of Michigan announced the initiation of the Orphan Works Project. The focus of the project is on US digitized books held by HathiTrust, a partnership of major research institutions and libraries working to ensure that the cultural record is preserved and accessible long into the future.

pdf resource_orphanworks_13sept11.pdf

 
 

Research Library Issues, no. 276 (Sept. 2011)

RLI issue 276 includes:

  • Ahead of the Storm: Research Libraries and the Future of the Research University
  • Collecting Small Data
  • Copyfraud and Classroom Performance Rights: Two Common Bogus Copyright Claims
 
 

Library Copyright Alliance Statement on Copyright Reform

In the wake of Judge Chin's rejection of the Google Books Settlement, there has been a renewed interest in legislative solutions to a variety of copyright issues affecting libraries, including those implicating the mass digitization of books, the use of orphan works, and the modernization of 17 U.S.C. §108 (particularly preservation). The Library Copyright Alliance, comprised of the American Library Association (ALA), the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), and the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), has several general comments on possible efforts to address these issues via legislation.

pdf lca_copyrightreformstatement_16may11.pdf

 
     

Letter to Federal Trade Commission re: Proposed Consent Agreement In the Matter Google, Inc. (Google Buzz), File No. 1023136 (Apr. 26, 2011)

ARL comments to the FTC on the proposed consent agreement, specifically, regarding privacy issues raised by the Google Books product, which involves both searching and selling books.

pdf gbs-privacycomments_26apr11.pdf

 
 

Re: Federal Copyright Protection of Sound Recordings Fixed Before February 15, 1972

The Association of Research Libraries and the American Library Association provide reply comments on the desirability of bringing under federal protection sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972.

pdf arl-ala_soundrecordingcomments_13apr11.pdf

 
 

A Guide For the Perplexed Part IV: The Rejection of the Google Books Settlement

On March 22, 2011, Judge Denny Chin rejected the proposed settlement in copyright infringement litigation over the Google Library Project. Judge Chin found that the settlement was not "fair, reasonable, and adequate" as required by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Judge Chin issued the decision over a year after the fairness hearing he conducted. His opinion agrees in large measure with the objections to the settlement asserted by the U.S. Department of Justice at the hearing and in its written submissions. This paper discusses the opinion and where it leaves Google Books Search.

pdf guide-for-perplexed-part4-apr11.pdf

 
 

Library Copyright Alliance: Copyright Still a Barrier to Mass Digitization

Statement concerning the decision in the proposed settlement of the Google Books lawsuit.

pdf lca_gbsstmt24mar11.pdf

 
 

GBS March Madness: Paths Forward for the Google Books Settlement

This chart attempts to diagram some of the possible paths forward following the fairness hearing on the Google Books Settlement.

pdf gbs-march-madness-diagram-final.pdf

 
 
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